Introduction

Thank you very much for your interest in the model and the work we do.  Below you will find the most frequently asked questions that we have collected and brought together for your convenience.

Please note that while we are extremely grateful to all those that undertake research using the model, unfortunately, we cannot help you with your research. We hope that the answers to these questions help you with your research.

Please note that questions answered in the FAQ will no longer be answered to by e-mail.

 


 

Where can I find more information?

To better understand the 6-D Model of National Culture see this article: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture/ 

To have in-depth information about the 6-D Model, we recommend one of Professor Hofstede’s books: 

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

To find the original data from Professor Hofstede, please see his website where you can download the available scores: http://geerthofstede.com/research-and-vsm/

Here you can also find the questionnaire itself as well as the manual for using it.

For more information on Organisational Culture visit this page.

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I want to cite your website in my thesis/paper/publication. How can I do that?

References should be made to one or both of the original sources:

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
and/or
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

These books are available in any good academic bookstore and library and from Amazon. All publication rights requests should be addressed to rights@geerthofstede.com 

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Where can I find information relating the 6 Dimensions to other topics (such as leadership styles, consumer tendencies, communication styles, etc.)

The development of research studies is complicated and resource consuming; therefore, we do not have published information about all the topics that are impacted by culture. However, a lot of research has been done linking the 6 Dimensions of National Culture to other areas of research. 

To find publications by Professor Hofstede, we recommend using this page. In addition, you can find more other articles written by authors connected to Professor Hofstede and Hofstede Insights here.

And, as always, you can check the following book for more information: 

Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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About the estimated scores marked with * in our tools

Certain country scores on the website cannot be found in Hofstede’s books. These scores are – partially or fully – not from Professor Hofstede; they have been added through research projects of other researchers or internal projects of Hofstede Insights. As this has been done under the direction of Hofstede Insights. all references should be made to Hofstede Insights as the original source, referring to the website as a SECONDARY SOURCE (please consult your academic style guide for more information).  

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Why is country X,Y,Z not included in the National Dimension list?

The development of the 6-D Model and the available scores has been carried out over many years, as well as financed by different projects. However, some countries have not been included in the research and therefore, the data simply does not exist.

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From which year are the dimension scores? Are the scores up to date?

Depending on the country, the data originates from different years. The first scores were collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973, covering more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 largest. This was later extended to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of Geert Hofstede’s work since 2001, scores are listed for 76 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations.

Since culture only changes very slowly, the scores can be considered up to date.

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How were the scores generated?

The scores that you see here have been generated over time, starting with Hofstede’s initial studies between 1967 and 1973. Hofstede's dimensions were not developed from theory but found inductively, that is, only once the survey data was collected were the dimensions generated. Therefore, the dimension definition and the country scores is a process. 

To fully understand this process, we recommend reading one of the following two books: 

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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What is the range of scores?

The scale runs from 0 – 100, with 50 as a mid-level. The rule of thumb is that if a score is under 50 the culture scores relatively LOW on that scale and if any score is over 50 the culture scores HIGH on that scale.  In the case of IDV – the LOW side (under 50) is considered “Collectivist” and above 50 considered “Individualist”.  

However, when using the Hofstede 6-D Model, it is important to keep in mind that culture only exists by comparison. The country scores on the dimensions are relative; societies are compared to other societies. Without comparison, a country score is meaningless. 

That means that only in comparison to another country can you say that a country is individualistic. For example, only in comparison to a country that scores 28 on this dimension will a country that scores 43 be viewed as being more individualistic. For a country that scores 64, this country that scores 43 will be viewed as less individualistic.

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I need help with my thesis

Unfortunately, we cannot help with academic projects or Bachelor and Master’s theses. Please see Hofstede’s personal website for information about his research: http://geerthofstede.com/research-and-vsm/ 

And, as always, you can check the following books for more information: 

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded 3rd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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Send me the books for free

Unfortunately, we do not send the books, the books are available in any good academic bookstore and library and from Amazon.

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Country/Regions

We emphasise that our treatment of country or regions as separate units does not embody any ideological judgement of whether or not these units belong together politically. It is simply an expression of the fact that sampling has been conducted separately in these geographical places.

In addition, please remember that country dimensions are measured as a whole. This means that while all individuals have their own personalities which fit more or less with this cultural expectation, you will only see the overall country score.

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Interesting links

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When was Hofstede Insights new website created?

Our current website was created in 2017.

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How often is your website updated?

Our website is updated continuously. If you have any comments on the content presented on the website, please reach out to info@hofstede-insights.com and we will consider your comments.

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