About Geert Hofstede

Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.

Through the publication of his scholarly book, Culture’s Consequences (1980, new edition 2001), Geert Hofstede (1928-2020) became the founder of comparative intercultural research. His most popular book, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (1991, newest edition 2010, co-authored with Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov), has so far been translated into 20 languages.

Geert Hofstede’s articles have been published in social science and management journals around the world. He is recognised internationally for having developed the first empirical model of “dimensions“ of national culture, thus establishing a new paradigm for taking account of cultural elements in international economics, communication and cooperation. Later, he also developed a model for organisational cultures.

Through his varied and numerous academic and cultural activities in many different countries, Hofstede can be regarded as one of the leading representatives of intercultural research and studies. The findings of his research and his theoretical ideas are used worldwide in both psychology and management studies.



  • Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 2010
  • Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 2005
  • Gert Jan Hofstede, Paul Pedersen, Geert Hofstede, Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures.Intercultural Press, 2002
  • Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001
  • Geert Hofstede, Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 1998
  • Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 1st edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 1997
  • Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications, 1980